Drug Type: Alcohol (a Depressant)

Other Names: Liquor, booze, cocktails, wine coolers, malt liquor, spirits, brew

What it looks like: Liquid-varies in color

How it is used: Consumed

Effect of the drug: Effects can occur within several minutes of ingestion, however the effects of alcohol are influenced by multiple factors relative to the user, including the user’s weight, gender, tolerance level, whether food was consumed, and how quickly the alcohol was ingested:

• Feelings of relaxation or euphoria

• Reduced anxiety and/or reduced inhibitions

Negative Effects/Overdose Effects: Drinking alcohol to excess, drinking alcohol out in the hot sun, mixing different kinds of alcoholic beverages, or mixing alcohol with medications or illicit drugs accelerates the effects of alcohol on the body and can easily lead to an overdose. What is excessive to one drinker may not have much effect on another drinker and this is why drinkers must take responsibility for knowing their "limit". However, a drinker rarely realizes he or she has become intoxicated until it is too late.

Excessive consumption of alcohol causes:

• Loss of motor skills and lack of coordination

• Headaches

• Nausea

• Dehydration

• Muddled thinking

• Aggressiveness (in some users)

• Sedation ("passing out")

• Blood poisoning

• Coma

• Death

• There have been many cases where a drinker falls asleep, lapses into a coma and dies. Many times, the drinker is surrounded by friends, but help is not summoned because they are unaware of the severity of the drinker’s condition. Binge drinking, where drinkers consume excessive amounts of alcohol in a very short period of time so as to become heavily intoxicated, is a practice gaining notoriety for its occurrence on college campuses. It is extremely dangerous. Remember that an experienced drinker may have a lethal blood alcohol level and still be functioning. An extremely disoriented or non-responsive drinker who cannot be awakened should receive immediate medical attention.

What to look for:

• A distinct odor. (During the digestive process where a large amount of alcohol has been consumed, the body emits the odor alcohol through the pores of the skin)

• Dilated pupils and bloodshot eyes

• An inability of the person to concentrate

• Slurred speech

• Distorted sensory perception, impaired or slowed reflexes and/or a lack of physical coordination

Paraphernalia Associated with Drug Use:

• Coolers, insulated bags, flasks or any other item that can be used for concealing alcohol.

• Look for liquor bottles or cans discarded near the drinker, or in the drinker’s home or vehicle.

• Fake driver’s licenses. (The legal drinking age in the United States is 21.)

Potential for Abuse: Considering the low cost of alcohol, its accessibility, desirable disinhibiting effect, and the fact that its use is socially acceptable, usually encouraged and often glamorized, the potential for abuse of alcohol is extremely high. Alcohol is the most commonly abused drug in the United States and the most widely used drug among teenagers. The body easily builds up a tolerance to alcohol through repeated use, requiring that the user continually ingest larger quantities for the desired effects. This process so frequently leads to addiction that the National Institute of Health estimates that one in four children is exposed to family alcohol abuse or alcoholism. The economic costs of alcohol and drug abuse in the United States, taking into account injuries and deaths caused by drunk drivers, medical treatment for alcoholism and injuries or deaths due in part to alcohol-induced accidents or intentional acts of violence, is estimated at $245 billion. (National Institute of Health Press Releases, 5/13/98; 12/30/99)

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Drug Type:

Amphetamines are synthetic (man-made) drugs that stimulate the Central Nervous System. Methamphetamines are chemically related to amphetamines.

Other Names: Amphetamines: Uppers, black beauties, pep pills, bennies, dexies, crosses, hearts, speed.

Methamphetamines: (crank, ice, meth, crystal meth, rock, crystal, speed, poor man’s cocaine, speedballing (mixing heroin with methamphetamine), meth freak (methamphetamine addict), meth madness (refers to the psychosis caused by heavy methamphetamine use),meth lab (clandestine makeshift laboratory where methamphetamines are produced).

What it looks like: Amphetamines and methamphetamines come in several forms:

• Legally produced pills or capsules (controlled substances requiring a prescription) marketed by pharmaceutical companies

• Clandestine lab-produced pills or capsules

• Powdered form (for snorting)

• Clear liquid

The pills will vary in shape, size or color whether they are clandes-tinely or legally produced. Powders in a capsule is indicative of an illicit substance. The difference between amphetamine and methamphetamine powder is that methamphetamine powder has a crystal-like quality-hence the term "crystal meth." The color will be white to off-white, but amphetamine powder may have a yellowish tint to it. The powders will look similar to cocaine.

"Ice" or dextromethamphetamine hydrochloride is a smokable form of methamphetamine. Ice is a clear, crystal, rock-like substance which looks similar to pieces of glass or an ice cube. Ice is popular in the southwestern and western United States but its use is expected to spread to all parts of the United States as a substitute for crack cocaine. "Ice" is more expensive than crack cocaine, but its effects last about twenty times longer than those of crack cocaine.

"Cat" or methcathinone is chemically related to methamphetamine and is found in a powdered form that ranges in color from off-white to yellowish or beige. "Cat" is a popular drug in the United States, but its use is expected to continue to spread.

How it is used:

• Ingested orally

• Snorted

• Injected

• Smoked

• "Ice" is usually smoked, snorted or injected

• "Cat" is smoked or snorted

Effect of the drug: The effects can last from approximately 4 to 12 hours, but the initial high or "peak" is gone within minutes of ingestion, leaving the user to face a "crash," or a low, desperate feeling which sparks a strong desire to use the drug again. The effects of smoking "Ice" can last up to 24 hours.

• Increased blood pressure/increased heartbeat

• Increased breathing/body temperature

• Euphoria

• Loss of appetite

• Feeling more alert and less tired

• Intense "rush" which only lasts for about a minute

Negative Effects/Overdose Effects:

• Irritability/anxiety

• Severe mood swings

• Overheating/fever

• Weight loss

• Difficulty sleeping

• Paranoia/hallucinations

• Depression

• Compulsive behavior, for example, feeling that there is something crawling under the skin. User will pick at the skin, or rub their arms over and over again.

• Nerve damage which causes symptoms similar to Parkinson’s Disease

• Stroke

• Increased risk for AIDS/HIV or Hepatitis where needles are used

• Convulsions

• Meth psychosis/meth madness (similar to schizophrenia)

• Death

What to look for: Heavy users tend to go on binges during which life revolves around getting the drug and getting high. This can last for several days and the user goes without sleep due to the effects of the drugs. Behaviors consistent with bingeing would include unpredictability and a tendency to drop friends, work, obligations.

• Lack of hygiene/body odor

• Dry mouth/nose

• Sleeplessness

• Burns on hands or fingers (from smoking or freebasing)

• Inexplicable changes in emotional and physical behavior

• Possession of pharmaceutical pills without a prescription

• Violent or suicidal tendencies or self-inflicted wounds that cannot be explained (coupled with some other evidence of substance abuse)

Paraphernalia Associated with Drug Use:

• Needles/syringes

• Glass pipes (for smoking "Ice")

• Aluminum foil/cans for smoking methamphetamine

• Clear plastic bags or baggies (for packaging)

NOTE: Methamphetamine accounts for the majority of amphetamine abuse. Approximately 80% of all clandestine laboratories in the United States are producing methamphetamine. These labs are concentrated in the southwest and western United States, where methamphetamine use, especially "Ice," is much more prevalent. Evidence of a meth lab includes large amounts of filters, flasks, pH paper, heat sources, beakers, clamps, syringes, tubing, funnels, and cans, canisters, or bottles of chemicals. Some of the most common chemicals found in a meth lab include:

Ephedrine; Ammonia

Chloroform; Acetone

Methanol; Sulfuric Acid (battery acid)

Hydrogen Peroxide; Red phosphorous

Hydrochloric Acid; Phosphoric acid

Ethyl Ether; Phenyl-2-propanone

Acetic Acid; Iodine

Freon; Sodium Hydroxide (Lye)

Epsom Salts (Magnesium Sulfate); Toluene (paint solvent)

You should never investigate a meth lab on your own. Safely dismantling a meth lab requires painstaking care and expertise. Leave immediately. Meth labs are highly volatile (subject to fire or explosion), but are also toxic and can instantly cause organ damage (especially to the lungs) or death. Also, labs are frequently rigged or "booby-trapped" to cause injury or death to trespassers. No one should be allowed to remain in the lab and a safe perimeter should be established while waiting for professional assistance.




Potential for Abuse: Amphetamines are highly abused. In 1999, it was estimated that 16.3% of 12th graders in the United States had tried amphetamines (methamphetamines, ice) at least once. (Source: Monitoring the Future study, 1999) Amphetamines are likely to be found at nightclubs and parties, but usually must be purchased through a trusted source. Amphetamines are slightly more expensive than other drugs but provide a much longer lasting high, making them cost-effective drugs. At the present time, meth amphetamines range in price from $5 to $20 per pill, and $100 to $500 per gram of powder. "Ice" reportedly costs much more. The fact that abusing amphetamines and its derivatives (methamphetamine, "Ice", "Cat") destroy the body and mind makes these some of the most feared and most dangerous illicit drugs available.

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Drug Type: Cannabis (both depressant and hallucinogen)

Other Names: Marijuana (refers to leaves and flowers of the cannabis plant), weed, bud, sinse, pot, grass, crippy, thai stick, pillows (refers to cannabis packaged in tiny baggies), reefer, mary jane, spliff, blunt, joint, roach, stick, regs, ganja, hash, sinsemilla

What it looks like: Dull green or brownish in color and leafy. A bag of cannabis usually has leaves, seeds and twigs in it. The cannabis plant has an odd number of serrated leaves (3,5,7,9,11). Hashish is a concentrated form of cannabis extracted from the plant resin, which is dark brown in color. Hashish is pressed into balls, cakes or cookies. Hashish is dark brown in color. Hashish oil is an amber to dark-brown liquid, taken from the leaves and flowers of the plant.

How it is used:

• Cannabis is smoked and sometimes ingested.

• Hashish is smoked.

• Drops of hashish oil are put on a cannabis cigarette and smoked.

Effect of the drug: The effects of the drug are felt within ten to thirty minutes and may last several hours, depending on the amount used.

The effects include:

• Euphoria

• Mild hallucinations

• Increased relaxation

• Disorientation

• Increased appetite

• Lowered inhibitions

The potency of cannabis depends on the THC level (delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) one of 450 to 500 chemicals found in the plant. The THC level of hashish and hashish oil are much higher than that of cannabis, resulting in a more powerful high. Hydroponically grown (grown without soil, homegrown) cannabis can yield an extremely high THC content.

Negative Effects/Overdose Effects: In large doses, cannabis causes fatigue, "burnout," paranoia or psychosis. Long-term effects of cannabis use upon the body include cell abnormalities, impaired speech, loss of memory, lack of mental focus, inability to concentrate, mood swings, blurred vision, infertility, sinusitis, bronchitis or lung cancer, pregnancy complications and panic disorder. A breastfeeding mother can pass THC to her baby through breast milk.

What to look for:

• Odor (burning cannabis smells similar to burning rope)

• Distortions in perception

• Forgetfulness

• Bloodshot eyes

• Little interest in school, work, family

• Little interest in friends who are drug-free. Look for a change in friends.

• No motivation/fatigue

• Loud talking, laughter as initial high is being felt by user

• Drowsiness or lack of focus as effects of the "high" wear off

• Look for potted plants placed directly under lights or a chem-light. Cannabis plants are usually kept in odd locations such as the closet.

Paraphernalia Associated with Drug Use:

• Bongs (a water pipe for smoking cannabis)

• Pipes-glass or wooden

• Roach clip (holds the cannabis cigarette, "joint" or "blunt" firmly in place)

• Rolling papers (for rolling a cannabis cigarette)

• Bags and baggies

• Scales

• Cigar tobacco in the trash or in the cigar box-this means the user was fashioning a "blunt" where most of the tobacco is removed from the cigar, and is replaced with cannabis. The burning of the cigar tobacco masks the smell of the burning cannabis.

• Incense, candles, car air fresheners-used to mask the smell of burnt cannabis

• Chem-lights are used indoors for growing cannabis plants


Potential for Abuse: Cannabis is an easily accessible and widely abused drug. It provides a long-lasting, and relatively cheap high, with the average dose costing between five and ten dollars. Its mild, depressant effects appeal to every age group and socio-economic group. Users become psychologically addicted and are blissfully unaware of the damaging effects of cannabis use on the body, which will be manifested over time. The effect of cannabis smoke on the lungs is far worse than that of cigarettes. In addition, cannabis is a gateway drug, meaning most people that try it move on to more dangerous, illicit drugs like cocaine and designer drugs. This may be due in part to the fact that the body easily builds tolerance to cannabis, and to continue to become high, a user has to smoke significantly more cannabis.

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Drug Type: Cocaine (cocaine hydrochloride or cocaine HCL) and Crack Cocaine (Cocaine HCL, baking soda, dissolved in water and heated) are stimulants.

Other Names: Cocaine: Powder, nose candy, blow, soft, snow, coke, base, speedball (cocaine mixed with heroin), hooter, "do a line" (inhale cocaine), Yeyo (spanish), white horse, toot

Crack Cocaine: Hard, freebase, baser, crack, rock, ball, cookies, 8-ball (refers to eighth of an ounce of cocaine-approx. 3.5 grams)

NOTE: Crack cocaine supposedly gets its name from the crackling sound it makes while being smoked.

What it looks like:

Cocaine powder is grainy, ranging in color from white to off-white to yellowish.

Crack Cocaine has a rock-like, chunky consistency and ranges in color from off white to beige, yellowish or brownish.

How it is used: Cocaine is most commonly snorted. Cocaine can be injected or smoked, which is also known as freebasing. Crack Cocaine must be smoked. It is not water soluble.

Effect of the drug: The effects from cocaine use are felt immediately and last one to two hours. Crack cocaine use provides a high that is incredibly potent, due to the way it is ingested. The effects of crack cocaine are felt almost instantly, quicker than any other drug. The "low" that follows this incredible "high" is what drives the user to seek another dose, or "hit" of crack cocaine. The effects of crack cocaine use last about fifteen minutes.

Effects include:

• Increased alertness, euphoria, and excitation

• Increased blood rate/pulse

• Insomnia

• Lack of appetite

Negative Effects/Overdose Effects:

• Agitation

• Hallucination

• Heart disease

• Brain seizures

• Mental illness (cocaine psychosis)

• Convulsions

• Death- Can result from a first time use if the user has significant health conditions, such as a heart problem. The dosage necessary to cause an overdose varies from person to person.

Note: Using crack cocaine during pregnancy results in the birth of cocaine-addicted babies commonly referred to as "crack babies". Crack babies have lower birth weight, more birth defects and slower mental and physical development than the average baby. Crack babies are at greater risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (SIDS)

What to look for:

• Nervousness and anxiousness

• Agitation and/or excitability

• Dilated pupils

• Sore throat (for smokers)

• Sleeplessness

• Chronic Fatigue

• Nosebleeds (for cocaine snorters) or runny nose

• Burn marks, injury to fingers (for crack cocaine users from holding a lighter or other heat source under the crack cocaine rock for extended periods) or unexplained burns on body, caused by smoking powder cocaine with ether (freebasing), which is extremely volatile when heated.

• Paranoia or hallucinations, violent erratic behavior or suicidal tendencies

• Sudden lack of interest in sleep, food, family

• Sudden drop in performance at work or school

• Withdrawal symptoms from cocaine include irritability, depression and muscle aches

Paraphernalia Associated with Drug Use:

• Clear plastic bags are commonly used for transporting larger amounts of drugs.

• Tiny plastic baggies with a seal, like a miniature "Ziploc" bag are favored by drug dealers for packaging small doses, or "hits" of cocaine. Baggies come in all sizes, colors and designs.

• Glass vials are used for storing powder cocaine

• Razor blades are used for cutting the cocaine.

• Straws or anything that can function as a straw are used for snorting cocaine (such as a dollar bill or empty ball point pen casing).

• Scales (triple beam, handheld, digital varieties).indicate drug dealing is probably occurring.

• Cutting agents, Inositol, mannitol, lidocaine, laxatives, local anesthetics in powdered form are popular substances added to, or "cut" with pure cocaine to increase the drug dealer’s product and increase profits. They are legally sold and will usually be labeled. These items have some legitimate use, but a large amount on hand would be inconsistent with personal use.

• Mirrors are used for doing "lines" of powder cocaine, and can also withstand a heat source being applied if necessary (freebasing)

• Strainers are used to get the lumps out of powder cocaine and any cutting agent that a drug dealer is adding.

• Spoons (a "coke" spoon) holds a small dose of powder cocaine. Also, the spoon can withstand a heat source and may be used by those who are injecting cocaine.

• Burnt foil could be used either as a way to smoke crack cocaine or to heat up powder cocaine for injecting or smoking.

• Crack pipes are used to smoke crack cocaine. Crack pipes are homemade pipes, often fashioned out of mini liquor bottles or soda cans. Look for a hole punched in the center of the soda can or bottle. A crack pipe assembly may include the pipe, copper mesh scouring pads (known as "Brillo" pads), metal rods, and pieces of rubber. The copper mesh is used as filter and to hold the crack cocaine rock in place. The rod is used to position the crack cocaine rock, and the rubber or other material is used to plug any opening in the pipe. This blocks the flow of air out of the pipe. Usually large openings in the pipe are blocked and a very small hole is punched in the makeshift crack pipe. The smoke from the burning crack cocaine rock is inhaled through the small hole.

• Disposable cigarette lighters from which part of the metal assembly has fallen off indicate that the lighter was lit for a long period of time, consistent with what happens when a crack cocaine smoker uses a lighter as a heat source.

Potential for Abuse: Cocaine and crack cocaine remain extremely popular despite their dangerous reputations, with the United States consuming approximately 70% of the world’s cocaine supply. Crack cocaine provides a high that is so powerful that most first-time users are instantly addicted. Cocaine and crack cocaine users experience a powerful psychological addiction to the drug. Compounding the problem is that cocaine and crack cocaine are not difficult to find. They can usually be purchased from dealers on street corners. However, this accessibility does not come without a price. Because of the incredible amount of money at stake, there is a great deal of violence associated with street level drug sales and the act of selling and purchasing drugs is a dangerous and often deadly activity. Although cocaine is relatively cheap (a standard "hit" costs about ten dollars), a cocaine user’s habit quickly becomes expensive. Rarely can a cocaine user afford his or her habit. Therefore, cocaine addicts frequently steal, rob, and/or commit acts of prostitution to get money for cocaine. These acts result in self-destruction, and devastate the family unit, as well as the community.

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Drug Type: Depressants.

Two of the major classes of depressants include barbiturates and benzodiazepines. These drugs are used to treat several conditions, including anxiety, sleep disorders and depression.

Other Names: Barbiturates: Barbies, barbs, sleeping pills, downers

Benzodiazepines: Tranks, tranquilizers, benzos

What it looks like: Barbiturates and benzodiazepines are pills, tablets or capsules legally produced by pharmaceutical companies for distribution in the United States. They are rarely produced in clandestine labs. The drugs come in all shapes, sizes and colors, but can be identified by what is imprinted on them. The imprint, a series of letters or numbers, or a name, represents the manufacturer and the brand name or active ingredient of the drug. The imprint should be interpreted with the assistance of a pharmacist or with a Physician’s Desk Reference.

Commonly abused barbiturates: phenobarbital, amobar-bital (Amytal), pentobarbital (Nembutal, "yellow jackets") secobar-bital (Seconal, "red devils," "rainbows"), butalbital (Fiorinal, Fioricet)

Commonly abused benzodiazepines: alprazolam (Xanax, "xanzibars," "xannies"), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), triazalam (Halcion)

How it is used:

• Ingested

• Some of the drugs come in injectable clear liquids

Effect of the drug:

• Relieves stress/tension/anxiety

• Drowsiness/lethargy/slowed reflexes

• Euphoria

• Tranquility

• Sedation/induces sleep

Negative Effects/Overdose Effects:

• Loss of coordination

• Excess sedation

• Slurred speech

• Blurred vision/dizziness

• Nausea/vomiting

• Confusion/paranoia

• Heart, nerve, or kidney damage

• Coma

• Death

Withdrawal symptoms include insomnia, tremors, weakness, anxiety Withdrawal can be fatal and should be medically supervised. Death from overdose with benzodiazepines is not likely unless the drugs are mixed with alcohol or other drugs.

What to look for:

• Signs of intoxication as if "drunk" but without the odor of alcohol

• Slurred speech

• Slowed reflexes

• Frequent doctor visits

• Multiple prescriptions for the same drug

Paraphernalia Associated with Drug Use:

Prescription pill bottles. The pill bottles should be checked to see if drug listed on the label is the drug contained inside the bottle. Make sure person in possession of the prescription pill bottle is the person listed on the prescription. If prescription label has been scratched off, it is a good indicator that the bottle was illegally purchased or stolen.

Potential for Abuse: Barbiturate use is very dangerous because the body builds tolerance to the drugs over time. The user must increase the dosage to get the desired effect, however the amount of barbiturates that will cause death remains the same. This means that a heavy user risks death with every dose. Benzodiazepines and barbiturates can be fatal when mixed with alcohol. Over 3 million Americans abuse benzodiazepines and barbiturates every year, often without medical supervision. About 5,000 deaths and tens of thousands of emergency room visits result each year from barbiturate overdoses. (Source: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence) It is estimated that in 1999, 8.9% of 12th graders in the United States have used barbiturates or benzodiazepines at some time. (Source: Monitoring the Future study, 1999)

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Drug Type: Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) (a depressant)

Gamma Butyrate Lactone (GBL) (a depressant)

Federal Government made GHB/GBL illegal in February 2000.

Other Names: GHB, G, Liquid X, liquid G, Georgia Home Boy, goop, gamma-oh and grievous bodily harm. GBL is found in over-the-counter products such as Blue-Nitro, Revivarant, Renewtrient.

What it looks like: Clear liquid (similar to water but with a heavier, oily quality) Powdered form is white in color

How it is used: GHB and GBL are taken orally and are frequently combined with water, alcohol, other liquids or other drugs like Ecstasy or Ketamine.

NOTE: GBL converts to GHB inside the body.

Effect of the drug: Physical and mental effects vary with the dose but are similar to being intoxicated with alcohol without the hangover. They include disinhibition, confusion, slow heart rate, vomiting, shallow breathing, sleep-like trance, drowsiness, dizziness and nausea. GHB and GBL are known as steroid alternatives. They have alleged muscle-building effects, and allegedly allow muscles to recover more quickly after a workout.

Negative Effects/Overdose Effects: Overdoses are often the result of mixing GHB/GBL with alcohol or other drugs

• Unconsciousness or incapacitation

• Seizures

• Severe respiratory depression

• Coma

• Death

What to look for: Appearance of intoxication, as if "drunk" but with little, if any, odor of alcohol. A sleep-like trance is very common among users. Eyes may roll up, showing only the white part of the eye, as if the body wants to sleep, but cannot shut down. Also, someone under the influence of GHB may awake suddenly, without explanation from unconsciousness.

Paraphernalia Associated with Drug Use: GHB and GBL in liquid form are transported in anything that can store a liquid, but water bottles, eye-drop dispenser bottles, clear plastic milk jugs or dark brown glass jugs are popular. Look for GHB and GBL in the refrigerator. GHB/GBL can be ordered via the Internet Examine boxes or shipping labels for signs that these substances were shipped. Usually the company caters to health enthusiasts or bodybuilders. Look for Internet printouts with information about GHB or GBL or perhaps a recipe for manufacturing it. Look for paint stripping chemicals, dry-cleaning chemicals, copy machine fluids, or any chemical which contains butyrolacton (or lactone). GBL and GHB are made from butyrolacton. When butyrolacton is mixed with sodium hydroxide, GHB is produced. Sodium hydroxide can be found in lye, readily available in supermarkets. A large, unexplainable amount of any of the above-mentioned products/chemicals may indicate that GHB and GBL are being manufactured. Look for pH measuring papers or glass beakers which may indicate the drug is being manufactured.

Potential for Abuse: GHB/GBL can be easily found in nightclubs, at "Rave" parties, or college campuses. Increasingly, GHB/GBL are being produced in kitchen labs, making it readily available locally. Although slightly more expensive than the average illicit drug, GHB/GBL’s effects last longer than most other drugs. An ounce of GHB, a usual dose, can be purchased for $15 to $20 dollars. GHB/GBL have a great potential for abuse, as both drugs are addictive. GHB addiction can take weeks or months to occur, but GBL addiction can occur in days. What makes GHB/GBL so dangerous, is that the potency of the drug varies widely and cannot be known. Therefore, the potential for overdose and death is clearly high. Most disturbing is the emergence of GHB as a "date-rape" drug. Victims are easily incapacitated with GHB and will have little recollection, if any, of the attack.

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Drug Type: Heroin: A potent semisynthetic narcotic which is derived from morphine. Heroin has been estimated six times stronger than morphine.


This is the substance that is derived from the Papaver somniferum poppy plant (not native to the United States). All opiates are derived from opium, to include morphine, heroin, codeine, and thebaine.

Opioids: Synthetic (man-made) drugs which have the same effect as opiates.

Other Names: Heroin: H, smack, horse, junk, black tar, Mexican brown, manteca, teca, and tec. Bindles, bags, and bolsa (spanish for bag), refer to packaging in foil or baggies. A finger refers to 7 to 9 grams of heroin.

Opiates/Opioids listed below are legal with a prescription, but heavily abused:

Opiates: Morphine, codeine, hydromorphone, hydrocodone (Dilaudid), oxycodone (Percodan), Percocet, Tylox

Opioids: Merepidines (Demerol), methadone (Dolophine), propoxyphene (Darvon), fentanyl (Sublimaze), Pentazocine (Talwin)

What it looks like:

Heroin in its pure form is a crystalline powder ranging in color from white to dark brown.

Black-tar heroin is a form of heroin produced in Mexico that may be sticky like roofing tar or hard like coal, and ranges in color from dark brown to black.

Opiates/ Opioids are legal with a prescription. If in liquid form, bottles should be labeled with the tradename, and if in pill form, the markings on one or both sides of the pills serve to identify it. A pharmacist or a Physicians Desk Reference can be used to determine what the pill is based on its markings. Opiates/Opioids that have been diverted (illegally obtained) may be found on the street in a crushed, powdered form, contained in a tiny piece of aluminum foil or tiny plastic bags.

How it is used: Most opiates/opioids are taken orally or injected. Heroin can be snorted, injected or smoked (called "chasing the dragon," heroin is heated on a piece of aluminum foil and the fumes are inhaled)

Effect of the drug:

• Euphoria

• Drowsiness

• Dry mouth, dry skin

• Nausea, constipation

• Respiratory depression

• Anxiety

• Slowed heart rate and drop in blood pressure

Negative Effects/Overdose Effects:

Heroin is so powerful that the effects can be felt within seconds depending on the method of ingestion. It is so addictive that users will feel withdrawal symptoms within 6 to 12 hours of the last dose. The withdrawal symptoms for heroin/opiates/opioids are flu-like and include:

• Disorientation

• Runny nose, watery eyes

• Diarrhea

• Pain/muscle cramps

• Alternating chills and profuse sweating

Heroin users can never be certain of the potency of the dose they are getting so overdosing is common. Some rates of purity (which determine potency) in heroin samples have been found to be over 90%, while the national average is 41%. Heroin users risk overdose with each and every dose. The effects for heroin overdose and opiate/opioid overdose include:

• Slow, shallow breathing

• Pain, muscle cramps

• Rapid heartbeat/anxiety

• Convulsions

• Coma

• Death

What to look for:

• Lip licking (due to dry mouth)

• Slurred speech/lethargy (sleepiness, "nodding off")

• Constricted pupils

• Loss of coordination

• Depressed vital signs

• Sweating

Paraphernalia Associated with Drug Use:

• Hypodermic needles/syringes

• Look for "tracks" on the skin, usually on the inside of the arm. Tracks are marks left by repeated injections. Many heroin addicts will inject in unusual locations, such as in the toes, legs, or neck, to avoid detection by family or law enforcement.

• Discarded pieces of aluminum foil (called bindles) or tiny plastic baggies (called bags) which are methods of packaging.

• Cotton balls/spoons/belt, rope, large rubber band (these items are used by the heroin addict for injecting heroin. The cotton ball removes impurities, the spoon is used for heating heroin to dissolve it and belts, ropes, or bands wrapped around the arm ready the vein for injection)

• Cutting agents like mannitol, inositol, laxatives, quinine, sugar, flour, baking soda, lidocaine or procaine, and scales, large amounts of clean baggies, strainers, boxes of aluminum foil, found with heroin or in a heroin user’s possession, would indicate a heroin dealer, especially if items are found in an unusual location (bedroom, bathroom, hall closet), or if quantities of cutting agents are not consistent with personal use. Because the cutting agents are legal, they would probably not be hidden.

Potential for Abuse: Current national studies of high school students show that about 2 percent have tried heroin, and that about 73% perceive heroin use as being very harmful. (Source: Monitoring the Future 1999 Study/National Institute of Drug Abuse) Although the numbers look promising, heroin deaths among teenagers are becoming more common as heroin has made its way back onto the "rave party" and club scene. Heroin/opiate addiction affects all age groups and socio-economic classes. Heroin is incredibly accessible, and can be purchased on the street or in night-clubs. Because a heroin addict’s habit will cost from $20 to $100 per day (with each .1 gram dose costing between $15 to $30 dollars), heroin addicts will frequently engage in other activities such as prostitution, thefts or burglaries. Most importantly, deadly, infectious diseases such as AIDS or Hepatitis are known to be transmitted at an alarming rate among the intravenous (needle sharing) drug-using population.

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Drug Type: Inhalants (household products, cleaners, solvents, aerosols, paints, nitrates containing chemicals that are inhaled to get "high") Inhalants are stimulants and in some cases have hallucinogenic effects.

Other Names: Huffing, sniffing. Sniffers refers to inhalant abusers.

What it looks like: Examples of products that are inhaled:

Glue, paint, paint thinner, correction fluid, nail polish, nail polish remover, cleaning fluids, hair spray, cooking spray, lighter fluid, freon, gasoline, deodorants, Scotchgard fabric protector, laughing gas, whipped cream dispenser, chloroform, ether, amyl nitrates, aerosol cans, nitrous oxides.

How it is used:

• Sniffed

• Inhaled through the mouth

• Often a cloth soaked with chemicals is placed in a bag to trap the fumes. Fumes are inhaled through a small opening in the bag.

Effect of the drug: Effects are felt immediately and can last for hours

• Exhilaration or euphoria

• Distortion of sensory perception

• Loss of coordination

• Loss of appetite

• Can be hallucinogenic

Negative Effects/Overdose Effects:

• Nausea/vomiting/headaches

• Weight loss

• Chemical-induced stupor

• Loss of control

• Memory loss

• Mood changes

• Aggressive/violent behavior

• Suffocation

• Lung Damage/Brain Damage/Kidney Damage

• Heart attack

• Coma

What to look for:

• Appearance of being drunk without the odor of alcohol

• Lack of muscular control (staggering)

• Slurred speech

• Excessive runny nose/watery eyes/nosebleeds

• Odor of chemicals on the person or in room

• Rash/inflammation of the nose

• Paint on mouth/hands

• Bad breath

• Drowsiness/unconsciousness

Paraphernalia Associated with Drug Use:

• Discarded cans/canisters

• Aerosol containers that do not function properly

• Restaurant style whipped cream dispenser-looks like covered pitcher with an attachment at the top for a small, missile shaped canister called a "whippet". Used to inhale nitrous oxide. Very popular. These are being purchased at restaurant supply stores or stolen from restaurants.

• Tanks of nitrous oxide or helium gas (usually indicates theft/burglary)

• Chemical soaked rags, possibly in plastic or paper bags.

• Balloons (fumes or gases are inhaled directly from the balloon)

Potential for Abuse:

Inhalants, being cheap and readily available, are increasingly popular among middle school and high school students. One study estimates that 19% of 8th graders have used inhalants at least once. (Source: Monitoring the Future, 1999) However, inhalants are the only drug abused by more younger teens than older ones, although this may be because as teens get older they have greater access to and move on to other drugs. Inhalants are very addicting. The most dangerous aspect of inhalant abuse is its likelihood to cause brain damage.

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Drug Type: Ketamine (Ketamine Hydrochloride is used as an animal tranquilizer for pet surgery)

Other Names: K, Special K, Ket, Kit Kat, Vitamin K, K-hole

What it looks like:

• Clear liquid contained in vial (should be labeled or look for evidence that a label was affixed and has been removed)

• White crystalline powder

How it is used:

• Injected

• Snorted

• Smoked

• Mixed with alcohol and drunk

Effect of the drug: Effects can be felt within minutes depending on method of ingestion and can last up to 24 hours.

• Hallucinations/distortions in vision, time, sense, identity

• Users describe an out of body experience-as if they are floating

• Euphoria

Negative Effects/Overdose Effects:

• Loss of motor skills and loss of coordination

• Aggressiveness/violence

• Vomiting

• Coma

• Death

What to look for:

• Respiratory problems

• Evidence of distortion in sensory perceptions

• Slow to respond, as if in a drunken stupor

• Sedation

Paraphernalia Associated with Drug Use:

• Labeled vials. Common tradenames for ketamine are Ketalar, Ketaset and Vetamine.

• Syringes/Needles

• Small baggies (popular for packaging)

Potential for Abuse:

Ketamine is a very popular drug on the Rave scene and in nightclubs. Users generally purchase ketamine in clubs, at rave parties, or from friends. Ketamine costs about $20 per powdered dose, $50 to $70 per vial, or approximately $100 per gram. Songs have been written about being in the "K-hole," as the drug continues to gain popularity. Being in the "K-hole" means experiencing the hallucinogenic state caused by ketamine in which the user feels detached from reality. It is precisely because of these effects that ketamine may emerge as a "date-rape" drug. Producing ketamine in clandestine labs is a painstaking, difficult process, so most ketamine is stolen from veterinarian’s offices or pet hospitals.

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Drug Type: d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)

Other Names: LSD, acid, blotter, cid, doses, dots, window panes, trips, microdots, tabs, gel-tabs

What it looks like:

• LSD crystals are white and odorless

• LSD is found in liquid form-color varies depending on what the crystals are mixed with

• LSD is found in tablets (called microdots) or in thin squares of gelatin (called gel-tabs)

• LSD is usually found on blotter paper. The blotter paper consists of perforated squares, (each square representing one dose) covered with colorful designs or artwork (called "window panes"). A "sheet" is blotter paper containing one hundred perforated squares (100 doses of LSD). A "book" is ten sheets or one thousand doses of LSD. Possession of a "sheet" or a "book indicates an LSD dealer.

How it is used: Ingested

Use gloves or other protective measures when handling LSD as it can be absorbed through the skin.

Effect of the drug:

• Felt within 30 to 40 minutes. Lasts up to 12 hours

• Distortions in sensory perception, especially vision

• Hallucinations

• Mood changes

Negative Effects/Overdose Effects:

• "Bad trips"-hallucinations which cause fear, anxiety, panic

• Extreme mood changes

• Nausea

• Confusion/loss of control

• Flashbacks-where hallucinations return sometimes up to a year after the drug was ingested

What to look for:

• Dilated pupils

• Rapid heart rate

• Excessive perspiration or lowered body temperature

• Evidence that user is seeing things that you do not (distortion of the senses)

(If encountering someone who is having a "bad trip," never leave him or her alone. Reassure them that what they are going through is drug-induced and not real and that it will go away. You may want to get medical attention for the person.)

Paraphernalia Associated with Drug Use:

• Blotter paper

• Droppers (like eye-drop bottles)

• Ink/dyes/stamps (may indicate dealer)

• Some items associated with LSD/hallucinogen usage, but not necessarily positive indicators include posters, clothing, and other items with a psychedelic effect, lava lamps or anything that can provide a light show. LSD is present in rave nightclubs and rave parties.

Potential for Abuse: It is widely believed that a limited number of chemists produce all of the LSD in the United States. LSD is frequently distributed through the mail. LSD is cheap (at $3 to $5 dollars a dose) and its effects are long lasting. It is not an addictive drug, but the body does build up tolerance to it quickly, meaning that over time, the user must ingest more and more of the drug for the desired effects. LSD has been pushed as a mind-expanding drug, but there are no healthful benefits to taking LSD. Studies indicate that approximately 12% of teenagers have used LSD, and approximately 76% perceive regular LSD use as being very risky (Source: Monitoring the Future study, 1999).

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Drug Type: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); a hallucinogen with stimulant effects

Other Names:

MDMA, Ecstasy, Beans, Rolls, XTC, X, Love drug, wafers, ten-pack (refers to ten pills of MDMA) MDMA pills are given street names based on images stamped onto them by the manufacturers or because of their shapes. Examples of popular pills include double stacks (looks like one pill pressed on top of another) or domes (based on rounded, dome like appearance on both sides of pill), Adam and Eves, butterflies, doves, apples, playboys, mitsubishis, waldos, hearts, tweeties, CK’s.

What it looks like: MDMA is usually found in pill form. The pills are usually off-white, and have a speckled appearance, with a stamped image on one side. However, the pills come in a variety of sizes, shapes and colors. The homemade pill can be distinguished from a pharmaceutical by its uneven, imperfect shape, speckled, impure appearance, lack of exterior coating, and tendency to crumble easily. MDMA powder-usually off-white in color, is often made by crushing pills. Capsule form (Crushed MDMA is placed into an empty capsule. Powder in place of granules in any capsule might indicate the substance is an illicit drug)

How it is used:

• Ingested

• Snorted

Effect of the drug: The effects are usually felt within 30 to 60 minutes of being taken and can last up to 24 hours.

• Euphoria

• Increased energy

• Loss of inhibition

• Increased vital signs-heart rate, body temperature and blood pressure go up

• Mild hallucinations

• Decreased appetite

• Heightened sensitivity to touch

• Sexual feelings

Negative Effects/Overdose Effects:

• Jaw clenching/teeth grinding

• Irritation

• Headaches

• Vomiting

• Panic/Anxiety

• Exhaustion/Dehydration/Heatstroke- This is very common because while under the influence of the drug the user does not realize that the body is overheating and does not drink enough water or give the body a chance to rest. MDMA users at a Rave (typically an all night party) have been known to dance for several hours, raising the body’s temperature to dangerous levels, and then collapse, suffering a heat stroke.

• Convulsions

• Heart Attack

• Brain damage/mental illness

• Death

What to look for:

• Jaw clenching/ teeth grinding

• Heavy perspiration

• Dilated pupils

• People massaging each other (this is desirable under the influence of MDMA because of the user’s heightened sensitivity to touch)

• Eyes rolling up, showing the whites of the eyes, as if passing out, but the body continues to function.

• Skin hot to the touch

• Fainting/collapse

Paraphernalia Associated with Drug Use:

• Sandwich bags/baggies (used for packaging, although a small number of pills are usually carried loose)

• Glow-sticks or mini-flashlights. These glow in the dark and people dance with them in front of users to encourage the hallucinogenic effect of MDMA.

• Blow-pops (lollipops)/pacifiers-These are used to protect the user from the uncontrollable urge to clench their jaw and grind their teeth while under the influence of MDMA

• Vicks Inhaler/Vapor Rub/surgical masks-Vapor rub is rubbed on the inside of the mask. The vapors are inhaled and have an intense effect while under the influence of MDMA. The Vicks Inhaler is used similarly, eliminating the need for the mask. It is also easily concealed, and many rave clubs, bowing to public pressure are banning the wearing of surgical masks while inside the club. Also, women will hide Vapor rub inside a locket or compact to escape detection inside the club.

• Water bottles-Often water is carried in the club because of the tendency of MDMA users to overheat. Rave partygoers are often encouraged to enlist a "buddy" to watch them and make sure they are drinking enough water.

Potential for Abuse: MDMA is the mainstay drug of the Rave culture and nightclub scene and has become very popular on high school and college campuses as well. MDMA can be made in clandestine labs, but the most desirable pills are imported from Europe. MDMA is expensive, costing between $20 to $30 per pill. The body builds tolerance and becomes addicted to MDMA, requiring the user to increase their dosage at serious risk to their health. The potency of each MDMA pill is unknown and different, creating the risk of overdose with each use. Current studies are underway to determine the effect of long-term or heavy MDMA use on the brain. MDMA is believed to cause mental illness and/or brain damage with heavy use.

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Drug Type: Other hallucinogens include Phencyclidine (PCP)

Peyote-a variety of cactus grown in Mexico and southern Texas

Psilocybin- wild mushrooms that can also be grown indoors

Other Names: Phencyclidine- PCP, angel dust, rocket fuel, killer weed, embalming fluid Peyote-cactus, buttons, cactus buttons, mescal, mescaline, mescalito Psilocybin-mushrooms, shrooms, mushroom tea, magic mushrooms

What it looks like:

• PCP: Crystalline powder ranging in color from tan to brown

• Liquid form (PCP powder dissolved in ether, which is highly flammable) ranging in color from clear to yellowish

• Peyote: The plant is grayish-green and small. It has no spines.

• Psilocybin: The fresh psilocybin mushroom looks like any other but when it is broken, the bruised area turns bluish. Dried mushrooms are tan/brown, wilted and packaged in plastic bags. May be found pulverized, in powder form.

How it is used:

• PCP: Smoked (often laced on a cigarette), snorted, eaten or injected

• Peyote: Eaten, smoked, or drunk (boiled into a tea)

• Psilocybin: Eaten or drunk as a tea

Effect of the drug: PCP: Effects are felt within 2 to 5 minutes depending on method of ingestion and may last up to 48 hours in some cases. Effects are similar to LSD including hallucinations, distortion of sensory perception, mood changes


• Mood changes

• Hallucinations

• Distortion of sensory perception

Psilocybin: Similar but less potent effect than LSD

• Hallucinations

• Distortion of sensory perception

Negative Effects/Overdose Effects:


• Severe mood disorder

• Violent hostility (of special concern to Law Enforcement)

• Acute anxiety

• Drug-induced psychosis similar to schizophrenia

• Flashbacks

• Self-inflicted injury is common


• Difficulty distinguishing illusion from reality, "bad trip"

• Panic/anxiety


• "bad trip"

• panic/anxiety

The biggest danger is that psilocybin mushrooms are almost identical to poisonous varieties. Only an expert could tell the difference. Organ damage and death can occur within hours of eating poisonous mushrooms.

What to look for: Evidence that a person is experiencing hallucinations or loss of control due to changes in sensory perception or mood. Because PCP can cause a loss of sensitivity to pain, PCP users may injure themselves and not know it. Therefore, someone under the influence of PCP should never be left alone. PCP has a strong odor.

Regarding Psilocybin mushrooms: These grow on the underside of piles of cow manure. Users will trespass on private property to find these mushrooms.

Paraphernalia Associated with Drug Use:

• Pipes

• Sandwich bags

• Aluminum foil (used to wrap small quantities of PCP powder)

• Mortar/Pestle: For grinding the mushrooms

• Chem-lights, heat lamps, fans or other indoor-grow equipment-mushrooms are frequently grown at home. The spores (which are not illegal) of the mushrooms can be legally purchased through the mail or Internet.

Potential for Abuse: The purity level of PCP can never be determined and so the user risks overdose every time. The greatest danger of PCP is the strong risk of drug-induced psychosis and self-injury or injury to others. PCP users are known to become delusional and violent. These other hallucinogens are less commonly abused than LSD, but equally dangerous.

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Drug Type: Flunitrazepam: (Tradename: Rohypnol) a depressant drug classified as a benzodiazepine-sedative/hypnotic.

Other Names: Rohypnol, roches, roofies, mind erasers, R-2’s, Roach 2’s

What it looks like: Small white tablet made by Roche Pharma-ceuticals in labs in Mexico and South America. Flunitrazepam is illegal in the United States, however, it may be smuggled into the U.S. Rohynol may be found still in Roche blister packs-or aluminum foil bubble packs. They are often sold this way. Any pill purported to be Rohypnol, which is presented outside the Roche labeled blister pack, is probably fake and produced in a clandestine laboratory.

How it is used:

• Ingested (often by mixing it into an alcoholic beverage)

• Snorted

Effect of the drug: Effects are felt within 10 minutes and may last up to 8 hours

• Muscle relaxation

• Sedation/sleepiness

• Loss of inhibition

Negative Effects/Overdose Effects:

• Light-headedness/dizziness

• Loss of motor skills

• Confusion/disorientation

• Decrease in blood pressure

• Nausea

• Memory loss

• Incapacitation/ "passing out"

• If mixed with alcohol or other drugs, the effects of flunitrazepam are accelerated and user may become incapacitated. It can also cause coma or death.

What to look for: A person who appears drunk, and has difficulty communicating, trouble walking, is fast becoming incapacitated, or has passed out and is unresponsive, but who does not exhibit any odor of alcohol, may be under the influence of flunitrazepam.

Paraphernalia Associated with Drug Use: Look for blister packs labeled Roche (writing may be in Spanish)

Potential for Abuse: Rohypnol is associated with the rave party and club scene. It is cheap, about $3 to $5 dollars a pill, and its effects are pleasurable and long-lasting. Rohypnol mixed with alcohol causes an accelerated "knockout" effect, leaving the user with no memory of what occurred after the drug was taken. Coupled with the fact that Rohypnol dissolves easily in liquids, and has no odor or taste, the dangers of Rohynol as a "date-rape" drug are evident. Rohypnol became known as the date rape drug in the early to mid-1990’s, as an alarming number of women across the country became the victim of rapes. Most of the stories were identical. The last thing most victims would remember is having a drink and becoming quickly incapacitated. The victims would "pass out" and awake many hours later to discover that they had been raped and often abducted.

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Drug Type: Anabolic Steroids (Synthetic forms of the male hormone testosterone)

Other Names: Steroids, roids, androgens, hormones, juice, product

What it looks like: Clear liquid which should be in a labeled vial. Tradenames for steroids include: Dianabol,

Maxibolin, Equipoise,

Durabolin, Halotestin,

Winstrol, Annadral, Finajet,


Tablets which will have identifying markings on it

How it is used:

• Liquid form is injected into the muscle

• Tablets are taken orally

*To be effective, steroids are usually taken every day.

Effect of the drug: Help build muscle and strength, although very few steroid users experience the effect of developing large muscles like those seen in bodybuilding magazines. The user’s response to steroids is based on genetics. FDA-approved steroids are used to treat conditions such as scars, severe burns and cancer.

Negative Effects/Overdose Effects:

• Severe acne

• Baldness

• Sterility/Sexual dysfunction

• Aggression, also referred to as "roid rage"

• Depression

• For females-deepening voice, excessive body hair, reduction in breast size

• Male breast enlargement

• Stunts growth in young users

• Organ damage/Cardiovascular problems

• Cancer

What to look for:

• Physical changes in appearance such as those previously listed above

• Negative change in attitude or behavior such as aggressive behavior or irritability.

• Frequent or severe mood swings

• Obsession/self-absorption regarding the body

Paraphernalia Associated with Drug Use:

• Discarded vials/syringes/needles

• Glass Ampules

• Blister packs (airtight foil packages for the pills)

• Presence of literature on use of steroids/androgens/ testoterone for building muscle.

Potential for Abuse: There is a black market for steroids. Many illegal varieties are smuggled in from other countries, like Mexico. Unfortunately, many of the steroids obtained from Mexico tend to be fake. The drug is primarily used by athletes and body builders and is usually purchased through friends, or a contact at a health club or gym. Because steroids are usually injected, users risk contracting infectious, deadly diseases like AIDS or hepatitis if infected needles are (shared) used. Steroids range in price from $15 to $1000 dollars each, making them a hefty investment with no guaranteed results. The only guarantees regarding the continued illicit use of steroids are severe side effects and long-term health complications.

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• Attempts to quit using the drug or to "cut down" have failed

• The drug is taken in a larger amount than what was intended for a longer period of time than was intended

• A large amount of time is spent in activities necessary to get the drugs (criminal activities, finding a dealer, "doctor shopping," getting prescriptions filled)

• Activities that were important (work-related, social, recreational) are cut back or given up for lack of time or interest due to drug use

• Drug use is continued despite the fact that it is causing problems socially (with friends, family), psychologically or physically

• Drug-tolerance is created and more drugs are needed to get the desired effects

• Withdrawal symptoms are experienced as a result of not having the drug

• Other drugs are used to avoid withdrawal or to relieve withdrawal

• Inability to fulfill responsibilities due to being intoxicated (misses work, neglects children, neglects personal hygiene, etc.)

• Frequently intoxicated when doing so is physically hazardous (driving, babysitting, etc.)

-National Institute on Drug Abuse

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